Prostate Cancer and Its Treatment

The prostate has various functions

These include:

– Producing the fluid that nourishes and transports sperm

– Secreting prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a protein that helps semen retain its liquid state, and helping aid urine control.

SYMPTOMS

There are often no symptoms during the early stages of prostate cancer, but screening can detect changes that may indicate cancer. Screening involves a test that measures levels of PSA in the blood. High levels suggest that cancer may be present.

Males who do experience symptoms may have:

– Difficulty starting and maintaining urination

– A frequent urge to urinate, especially at night

– A weak urine stream

– Blood in the urine or semen

– Painful urination or ejaculation

– Pain in the back, hips, or pelvis

CAUSES
Researchers are unsure of the exact cause of prostate cancer. It develops when specific changes occur, usually in glandular cells. When prostate gland cells appear abnormal.

RISK FACTORS

* genetic factors
* age
* race or ethnicity
* family history
* diet
* obesity
* smoking
* alcohol consumption
* inflammation of prostate
* sexually transmitted infection

TREATMENT
Treatment depends on the stage.

Early stage prostate cancer
If the cancer is small and localized, a doctor may recommend:

– Watchful waiting or monitoring

– Surgery

– Radiation therapy

– External radiation therapy

– Internal radiation therapy

Advanced prostate cancer
As cancer grows, it can spread throughout the body. If it spreads, or if it comes back after remission, treatment options will change.

Options can include:

– Chemotherapy: This option uses drugs to help stop the growth of cancer cells. While it can kill cancer cells around the body, it may cause adverse effects.

– Hormonal Therapy

– Immunotherapy

– Targeted therapy

 

Source: OrologyHealth

Written by: Ruth Olusegun

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